Genetic Mutation - Changes between or within chromosomes that may alter an organism's phenotype giving it a greater or lesser advantage in the process of natural selection.
Chromosome - A group of coiled strands of DNA, containing many genes. Most multicellular organisms have several chromosomes, which together compromise the genome.
Genome - The genome of an organism is its set of chromosomes, containing all of its genes and associated DNA.
DNA - (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) A double-stranded helix of nucleotides which carries the genetic information of a cell. It encodes the information for the proteins and is able to self-replicate.
Nucleotides - Nitrogen containing molecules which link together to form strands of DNA and RNA.
Phenotype - The observed properties or outward appearance of a trait. The physical expression of the genes (alleles). This contrasts with genotype, which is an organisms genetic composition. The phenotype results from the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
Natural Selection - The process by which an individual's inherited needs and abilities are more or less closely matched to resources available in their environment, giving those with greater "fitness" a better chance of survival and reproduction.
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