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A - An : Afghanistan Last Updated: Oct 24th, 2012 - 04:06:42

Afghanistan - Transnational Issues
By CIA Factbook
May 8, 2008, 11:58

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Transnational Issues Afghanistan
Disputes - international:
despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, thousands of Afghan refugees continue to reside in Iran and Pakistan; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border and stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activites; regular meetings between Pakistani and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments; occasional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements with Amu Darya and Helmand River states
Illicit drugs:
world's largest producer of opium; cultivation of opium poppy - used to make heroin - expanded to 30,750 hectares in 2002, despite eradication; potential opium production of 1,278 metric tons; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some government groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed in Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through informal financial networks

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